Coronavirus_Kentron Insight

Coronavirus: All that you need to know from symptoms to Treatment

An individual can be infected without showing any symptoms

By Kentron Research

The Chinese government has battling coronavirus at war footing after the first case was reported. Now, this virus has reached our doorsteps also with the reporting of the first case in Kerala. So, it becomes important for everyone to know about the symptoms and treatment of this virus.

Coronaviruses (CoV) belong to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. Named after their crown-like shape, coronavirus was first identified in the 1960s.  Common human coronaviruses, including types 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1, usually cause mild to moderate upper-respiratory tract illnesses, like the common cold. A novel coronavirus (nCoV-19) temporarily named by World Health Organization is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans and is identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness first detected in Wuhan, China. 

Experts also showed that asymptomatic persons are potential sources of 2019-nCoV infection as an article published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

The scientist from The Doherty Institute, Dr Julian Druce VIDRL have regrown the virus after the release of genomic sequence. Doherty Institute Deputy Director Dr Mike Catton said, “It will also assist in the assessment of the effectiveness of trial vaccines.”

Credit Dr Julian Druce VIDRL, the Doherty Institute

Symptoms of Coronavirus infection:

The symptoms of most coronaviruses infection are similar to any other upper respiratory infection. In most cases, the patient knows whether he is infected with a coronavirus or a different virus causing cold and fever such as rhinovirus. Most common symptoms of coronavirus infection may include:

  • Runny nose
  • Headache
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Fever
  • A general feeling of being unwell

In more severe cases, the infection can cause pneumonia, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), kidney failure and even death. 

With the outbreak of the novel coronavirus, Health authorities have to take action to prevent the further spread of the disease. An important part of that prevention is the early detection and continual surveillance of the pathogen.

Transmission:

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and SARS.

When person-to-person spread has occurred, it is thought to have happened mainly via respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes, similar to how influenza and other respiratory pathogens spread. The spread of SARS and MERS between people has generally occurred between close contacts.

Diagnosis:

Clinicians may order laboratory tests on respiratory specimens and serum (Component of Patient blood) to detect human coronaviruses. Laboratory testing is more likely to be used if the patient has severe disease. Accurate and Fast diagnosis can be obtained by Real-time PCR technology used to detect specific species of Coronavirus like nCoV-19.  Certified kits and instruments are available for this test.

If Patient is experiencing above mentioned symptoms, he should inform his Clinician about any recent travel or contact with animals. Most CoV infections causing advanced diseases like MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) and SARS (Severe Accurate Respiratory Syndrome are deadly. Therefore reporting a travel history or contact with animals or animal products is very important when trying to diagnose CoV infections.

Prevention & Treatment:

There is currently no vaccine to prevent 2019-nCoV infection. The best way to prevent infection is to avoid being exposed to this virus. However, everyday hygiene habits can help prevent the spread of the virus. Some of the habits include:

  • Washing hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol if soap and water are not available.
  • Avoid touching eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
  • Stay home when you are sick.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces.

You treat a coronavirus infection the same way you treat a cold:

  • Get plenty of rest
  • Drink fluids
  • Take over-the-counter medicine for sore-throat and fever

There is no specific antiviral treatment recommended for nCoV-19 infection. People infected with nCoV‑19 should receive supportive care to help relieve symptoms. For severe cases, treatment should include care to support vital organ functions.

The input is the combination of Kentron Research and author Nitin Sawant, President (Diagnostics – India), Trivitron Healthcare Pvt. Ltd

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