The conquest of creating a reliable solution for heart problems started from the 20th century itself. Now, the time has come to cherish and acknowledge the conquest because in Georges Pompidou European Hospital in Paris, an artificial heart was inserted into a French 75 years old man, who had heart failure.
Heart being the one of the most vital organs also has its limitations, cholesterol, fat deposit and blood clot can contribute to the heart diseases or heart failure. There are treatments available like bypass and transplantations but these treatments either last for 5-10 years or else rejected by the body. Although, there are many scientists who haven’t given up on treating the helpless needy patients with a solution to treat and cure the patients.
Apart from various surgeries to repair the heart development of 3D artificial structures and use of artificial valves that were predominant an urge to create an artificial full functioning human heart development was a challenging and trending topic in the field of surgery.
Dr. Denton A. Cooley, founder of Texas Heart Institute was the first doctor to introduce an artificial functioning heart into a 47-year-old patient until he was supplied with a real heart transplant. The design was made by Dr. Domingo Liotta, in 1969. Inspired by this event many researchers are trying from years and years to develop an artificial heart that can revolutionize the field of surgery.
The artificial heart fitted on the 75 years French old man is the result of 25 years of effort. This heart has given the man a second life, is claimed proudly by the whole hospital and the city. The surgery took upto 10 hours to complete but the patient is healthy and is predicted to resume into a normal lifestyle very soon. The artificial heart is named ‘Carmat’ and is expected to stay beating and viable until 5 years. The inventor and surgeon Dr. Alain Carpentier, was interviewed and these are some lines that were highlighted by him.
“We’ve already seen devices of this type but they had a relatively low autonomy. This heart will allow for more movement and less clotting. The study that is starting is being very closely watched in the medical field.”
The heart is said to have many less complications as compared to the previous versions of artificial hearts. Carmat possess the capability to adjust the heart rate that means the personal having this heart can engage in various activities without risking any damage to the artificial heart. This heart is also made partially from cow tissue which reduces the likelihood of suffering from blood clots, which is the most common complications found with fabricated materials coming in contact with the blood if anti coagulants are not prescribed. The heart is charged with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries and it is worn outside of the body. This can be the only pitfall of Carmat and Dr. Capentier is expected to provide a solution in coming years.
Some comments from the inventories:
"In Carmat’s design, two chambers are each divided by a membrane that holds hydraulic fluid on one side. A motorized pump moves hydraulic fluid in and out of the chambers, and that fluid causes the membrane to move; blood flows through the other side of each membrane. The blood-facing side of the membrane is made of tissue obtained from a sac that surrounds a cow’s heart, to make the device more biocompatible. The idea was to develop an artificial heart in which the moving parts that are in contact with blood are made of tissue that is [better suited] for the biological environment, says Piet Jansen, chief medical officer of Carmat."
Although, this heart may make the country proud, the cost of this artificial heart will be around 140,000 to 180,000 Euros (or $191,000 to $246,000).